Available bioassays/enzyme inhibition assays
1) Anti-Wrinkle Assays:
Investigate the anti-aging potential of a test compound by monitoring its effect on enzyme activity of human skin cells.
- Elastase Inhibition. Wrinkle formation in the skin is accompanied by decrease in skin elasticity and the curling of elastic fibers in the dermis. Elastase inhibitors suppress elastase activity and prevent the damage of dermal elastic fibers, thus helping mitigate wrinkle formation).
- Collagenase Inhibition. Inhibition of collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase 1) by a test compound is an effective approach to mitigate collagen breakdown in the skin, improving skin health).
- Hyaluronidase inhibition. Hyaluronic acid is a major constituent of the extracellular matrix of the dermis and it is responsible for skin hydration and elasticity. Hydrolysis of hyaluronic acid, due to the enzyme hyaluronidase, produces loss of skin firmness).
2) Skin Lightening Assays
- Tyrosinase Inhibition Assay. Inhibiting tyrosinase activity has been targeted for the prevention of conditions related to the hyperpigmentation of the skin, such as melasma and age spots
3) Antioxidant Analysis.
Antioxidants are substances that can provide protection from endogenous and exogenous oxidative stresses by scavenging free radicals. Topical antioxidants are used in skin care products that are aimed for skin protection, whitening and at preventing and control the clinical signs of aging.
- ORAC assay (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity)
- FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power)
- DPPH (DPPH Radical Scavenging Capacity)
- TEAC (Trlox Equivalency Antioxidant Capacity)
- ABTS assay (total antioxidant capacity)
- Enzymatic Antioxidant: Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)
- Enzymatic Antioxidant: Catalase
- Enzymatic Antioxidant: Glutathione Peroxidase
- Enzymatic Antioxidant: Glutathione Reductase
- Enzymatic Antioxidant: Glutathione S-transferase
- Total glutathione
- Total Phenols
- Total Anthocyanidin
- Total Flavonoids
- Total Carotenoids
- Lipid peroxides
- Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances
- Protein oxidative products (carbonyls)
4) Anti-Odour Assays
Aryl-Sulphatase and beta-glucuronidase inhibition. Aryl sulfatase and beta-glucuronidase are the primary bacterial extracellular enzymes responsible for producing steroidal odor.
5) Enzymes inhibition assays. Enzymes that are involved in key roles of several diseases and disorders.
- Phospholipase A2 inhibition. Phospholipase A2 initiating the production of numerous lipid mediators that play key roles in the diverse inflammatory/allergic skin diseases.
- Elastase Inhibition. Elastase from neutrophils has been linked to the pathologic processes of a variety of inflammatory diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, adult respiratory distress syndrome, and cystic fibrosis). Because of the specific role of elastase in inflammatory process its inhibition reduces irritation, reactive and/or senescent epidermis.
- COX-I and COX-II inhibition. COX2-induced production of prostanoids is implicated in inflammatory diseases, characterized by edema and tissue injury.
- Hyaluronidase inhibition. Hyaluronidase accelerates wound healing processes and is beneficial for treating wound disorders.
- Matrix metalloproteinase-1,-3 and -9 Inhibition. Matrix metalloproteinases act on pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and other proteins to regulate varied aspects of inflammation and immunity.
- 15-Lipoxygenase inhibition. 15-Lipoxygenase is a mammalian lipoxygenase and plays an important role in several inflammatory lung diseases such as asthma, COPD, chronic bronchitis and and atherosclerosis.
- PAF Acetyl-hydrolase inhibition. Platelet-activating factor has been implicated in pathological processes, such as inflammation and allergy.
- SSAO-inhibition. SSAO is an enzyme known for its dual function in mediating inflammation and reactive oxygen species production.
- Glutathione transferase inhibition. Glutathione transferases are involved in the oxidative stress and in other human pathologies like cancer, drug resistance, neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders.